7. UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

We focus on our intent to build Sustainable One Health Communities (SOHCs) comprising six primary components

Figure 7. PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF A SUSTAINABLE ONE-HEALTH COMMUNITY
  • A co-operative Society of Ubricans (CSU) constituted by our members drawing from local communities.
  • Produce/product workshops for improving quality and packaging of things produced by our members.
  • A retail store that serves as a market for produce and products by members of the CSU.
  • A one-health clinic that provides clinical services to members of the CSU.
  • A web/mobile platform (http://shop.ubrica.com/) for managing the commerce issuing from the retail system.
  • A biomedical industrial city

The retail store, the one-health clinic, the co-operative workshop and e-commerce platform activates the 4th element of health production. We have designed SOHCs to overcome grand challenges in global health. We recognize the critical role of animals, environment, and economy in human health. We believe that sustainable health production in global health is a function of a system that integrates simultaneous operation of these four elements of human health, animal health, environmental health and economic health.

Our SOHCs are rooted in the conception that economic development is the most powerful means of health production. Economic development is the greatest cause of improvement in health.  Economic health, the 4th element of health production, is the primary driver of sustainable one-health in any community in the world. It is common knowledge that compared to a wealthy person a poor person is more likely to get sick; more likely to develop complications of disease; more likely to succumb complications and to develop disability due to disease, and more likely to die from a disease. It is impossible to improve health of a poor person in the long term, without improving the wealth of the person in the long term.
7.1. Fundamental Solution
When we strike a sale at Soko Janja, we divide the proceeds of produce/product sale into three fractions. One fraction goes back to the member, in form of profit. Second fraction goes back to our co-operative to meet operations and administration needs. The third fraction sits in a health fund this is what is called health risk pooling. A member seeking care at a health facility is fully covered. The owners of health facility are happy because they are assured of payment of the quantity and quality of their service offering.
7.1.1. Health risk pooling
Pooling refers to collecting money from many people in a group so that the money collected is then used to pay for health services for its members.   Pooling risks together allows the higher costs of the less healthy to be offset by the relatively lower costs of the healthy. Pooling ensures that the risk related to financing health is borne by all the members of the pool. Its main purpose is to share the financial risk associated with disease, disability and death for which there is uncertain need.

Smith and Witter (2004) explained that there are four classes of risk pooling comprise (a) no risk pool, under which all cost lies with the individual; (b) unitary risk pool, under which all cost is transferred to a single national pool; (c) fragmented risk pools, under which a series of independent risk pools (such as local governments or employer-based pools) are used; and (d) integrated risk pools, under which fragmented risk pools are compensated for the variations in risk to which they are exposed. Small, fragmented risk pools, which are the norm in developing countries, have seriously adverse outcomes for the users of the health system and PSC will help overcome the problem.

7.2.2. Poled Smart Contract

Each individual holder of Ubricoin will receive a smart contract to use health services at a URCC at the time of need Ubric6oin holders who will shop at Soko Janja, practice healthy behaviors will get loyalty point inform of Brevises. The Brevises will go to the pooled smart contract to be used to access health care services in the URCCs. The smart contract will cover preventive and curative services for the holder by the contract. Pooled smart contract will recreate a pooled smart contract (PSC) that will act as health risk pooling.

EMBRACING TELEPRESENCE HEALTH

We all desire easily accessible quality health care in our lives. In most cases patients will seek for medical care during advanced stages of their diseases. The cause being financial strain, distance to the health clinic or transport.

Telehealth can bridge this gap. Telehealth, the remote exchange of data between a patient at home and their clinician(s) through a phone or video conference is a modern form of health care delivery.

According to health research, it is estimated that most visits to the doctor are for simple issues that can be solved with a conversation. There are also times when you are not so sure you need to see a doctor. This can be solved with a simple phone or video call to the doctor.

In the early times, telehealth was done through the telephone. A doctor would diagonise the patient through the telephone, especially in the odd late hours of the night, which saved a lot of time and cost to travel for both parties.

In recent times, we have the wireless communication or video conferencing between the doctor and patient. Telehealth provides solution to those in the rural areas who are unable to access quick transport to the health center. Perfect opportunities for telehealth include the pregnant mother who needs routine monitoring care that is limited in some areas, the elderly, those with children, the disabled and the arising emergency cases.

Telehealth will bring a stop to the unnecessary waiting for hours in the hospital queues which is never enjoyable to any patient, who at some point end-up postponing their appointment with the doctor leading to more harm.

We at Ubrica, will use Ubricoin to implement Ubrica Retail Clinical Centres (URCCs) and community development. Four billion Ubricoins have been set aside for the projects. We shall construct a hundred URCCs which shall be distributed throughout the country.  The URCC system will be remotely connected to the community through a telehealth channel. This will create an extensive network of health infrastructure that will reach everyone in the community. A URCC system with a telehealth network will ensure complete reach of every family in the country, ensuring universal access to health for everyone.

For more updates, please follow us on the links below;

Find Clinical Proceedings from Hospitals of Kenya;

https://jghcs.info/index.php/cphn

For the purpose of engagement, Ubrica world café;

uwc.ubrica.com

Complete KMA Member Satisfaction/ Needs Assessment Survey;

https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7K5GFDY

Join conversation on KMA Telegram group for in-depth updates here;

https://t.me/joinchat/I1wWcki3NO3hlHs_zz9SWg

Join the conversation about Ubricoin on Telegram;

https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=c1262298390_5891675953416153455

Ubrica Official Discussion Group on Telegram;

https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=s1208873027_15507959344907715567

 

Author,

Jane M. Jeremiah

6. UBRICA RETAIL CLINICAL CENTERS

Achieving universal health involving ensuring access. Ubrica will build retail clinical centers called Ubrica Retail Clinical Centers (URCCs). We will use the URCC model to organize village level commerce. A URCC will have three primary components: a medical clinic, a retail store, and produce value addition and quality improvement workshop. We intend to support design, development and construction of at least 100 health centers that will be leased to qualifying health professionals on 20 year mortgage agreement. We will construct an average of two units per county in Kenya. Some counties with greater population may have more than two. Each center will have a fully furnished health center and a retail store. A center so designed is the Ubrica Retail Clinical Center (URCC). Individuals enrolled into the CSU form the consumer base of the URCC. Each URCC will serve a catchment population of about 300,000 people. Thus, 100 URCCs will serve at least 30 million people. The URCC project requires US$ 1 billion. We shall allocate 2 billion Ubricoins to fund design, development and implementation of 100 URCCs in Kenya

6.1.           URCCS 2 BILLION UBN

We will sell 2 billion UBNs at $2 per Ubricoin to help in design, development, construction and management of the URCCs. We intend to construct at least 100 health centers average of two units per county. The 2 billion UBNs will be sold in four phases.

6.1.2. The reward system

The aim of creating the URCCs is to build a healthy conscious community. We will use Ubricoins to create an incentive structure to facilitate healthy behaviors. We will issue points to people who:

  • Practice preventive health such as, exercise, proper diet, optimal sleep and early screening of diseases.
  • Basic and secondary prevention of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and diagnosis checkups

All points earned will go to the pooled smart contract which will be used for paying providers for health services and shopping at Soko Janja.

6.1.1.          Phase 1. Private sale

In this phase we will sell 100 million UBNs. The funds raised will be used for the design of the URCCs.  Desktop research will be carried out to determine the structure and requirements needed to construct the URCCs.  Field research and visiting the sites will be done to determine suitable areas for constructing the URCCs. We will also do environmental studies and acquire permits.

We will also do marketing to create awareness and identify doctors who will be running the clinics. Public outreach and evaluation will be carried out to understand the scope of the project.

User’s research will also be done to determine our target audience and capacity for utilization of health services in each county. User’s studies will include consumers of care, providers of care and payers of care. This will help in determining the optimal number of clinics for each county. Counties with greater population may require more than two URCCs.

We will develop a program for quality training. This will help improve the quality of care that will be provided in the clinics. The identified doctors who will own the clinics will go through continuous professional development. A fraction of the funds raised in this phase, will be used for project planning i.e. getting proper legal document, permits and doing feasibility studies.

6.1.2.        Phase 2. Presale

We will sell 300 billion UBNs in this phase. These funds will be used for the development of URCCs. We will hire consultants, architects, engineers, planners, construction security personnel and IT professionals. This team will be responsible for planning and generating of construction documents for different counties.

6.1.3.        Phase 3. Crowdsale

In this phase, we will sell 1 billion UBNs on October 1, 2019. This will help us in acquisition of land and their title deeds thereof for the implementation of the URCCs project. This land will be sourced from different counties in Kenya. Our goal is to ensure that we at least have land in all the 47 counties so as to effectively start the construction of the URCCs. We will alsoe use these funds to purchase clinical equipment required in the clinics.

6.1.4.        Phase 4. Initial Token Offering

We will sell 600 million UBNs for management of the URCCs. The funds will support mortgages to the doctors who will own the URCCs. The mortgages will make it easy for fresh graduate to own clinics. Some of the funds raised will be used in an incentive program. We will reward health professionals with Brevi for provision of quality of care. We will also issue tokens to individual with good health seeking behaviors. These incentives are meant to improve the quality of care and as motivation to the doctors. Offering token to the patients will lead to early disease detection and prevention of diseases.

Funds raised from this phase will be used for continual growth and maintenance of the clinics and to set stage for long-term success. We will also hire technical teams which will be in charge of maintaining the equipment.

5.4.6. Phase 4. Initial Token Offering

We will sell 400 million coins on December 1, 2018 for scaling Soko Janja. These funds will be used to enroll 14 million households and to pay 7,250 community workers who will be recruited to register manufacturers and suppliers in the 47 counties, 210 sub-counties and 1,450 wards in Kenya.  We will create an incentive program to reward customers who will be buying locally produced products from soko janja.

5.4.5. Phase 3. Crowdsale

We will sell 300 million coins at this stage on October 1, 2018 for developing management capacity. This will include identifying, recruiting, training and retaining human resource for Soko Janja. These funds will be used to organize and upgrade teams into departments. In coordinating to make sure all the teams are working together in a synchronized version so that all the teams will work as a single whole.  We will also create a team controlling financial resources including creating appropriate use of the Ubricoin, token distributions, airdrops and loyalty incentive programs. We will use these funds for strategic planning to scale Soko Janja into a peer to peer market.

5.4.4. Phase 2. Presale

We will sell 200 million UBNs at this stage on August 1, 2018. These funds will be used for the development of Soko Janja. We will buy new computers to facilitate maintenance, updates and development of the platform. These funds will also cater to networking capabilities and paying salaries to people who will be working on the platform. We will also use a fraction of the funds raised to market our platform.

5. HUMAN ENGAGEMENT

We know that a person becomes poor when he or she is unable to exchange his goods or services for currency. When a person cannot find market for his or her products, services or farm produce, he or she ends up being poor. Nearly 95% of people living in Kenya are unable to find market for more than 80% of their farm produce. Kenyan subsistent croppers and pastoralists living in rural areas are extremely impoverished because they cannot find market for their produce. The only available market comes to them in form of organized cartels who buy the farm produce and livestock at a throwaway price. Even at this throwaway price, cartels are only able to purchase less than 20% of all the produce. The rest goes to waste. Perishable produce such as fruits, vegetable, flowers, animal products are rotting away in the villages of Kenya. This extreme waste of produce of the land, kills all possibility of generating wealth for the local people, and multiplies, by several orders of magnitude, the rotting capital in the country (see e.g., de Soto, 2002).

5.2. The Quandary

Without anywhere to sell produce, a subsist cropper or a livestock producer slides into extreme poverty. When sick, she is afraid to seek medical service until the disease advances, and becomes incapacitating. She is forced by worsening disease to seek medical care and arrives at a medical facility without enough money to pay for medical service. Her money does not cover for the medical service offered by the provide at the medical facility. The provider reduces the quality and quantity of service offering to match the little money available from the patient. The problem is that the provider of medical service receives hundreds of patients with advanced disease, but with little or no money. In most cases, the patient cannot pay anything at all. This severe lack of money to pay the providers in Kenya has led to a severe decline in the quality of medical service. Many owners of health facilities have to cut-corners just to make ends meet. Cutting corners by a medical provider means cutting a critical service, increased risk of worsening of disease, medical errors, or introduction of new diseases. Distressed medical providers in Kenya are offering the lowest quality experienced in the world. Low quality medical service is a serious health hazard to the people, which by itself results in death of health consumers in many instances. Health providers are seriously concerned by this problem. Without access to money however, and surrounded by masses of people with advanced disease, they are between a rock and a hard place. This is the quandary of health service.

5.3.          Fundamental solution

Logical reasoning indicates that the fundamental solution to health production problem lies in a system that improves the economy of each individual. In line with this logic, we have created a system to help people find market for their produce, services and products. In order to help a person, he or she must first join and become a member of distributed autonomous organization (DAO) known as the Co-operative Society of Ubricans (CSU). We intend to enroll 14 million families in Kenya alone. Once joined, our community workers help the member to send to market whatever he or she is producing. We have created an online retail store known as Soko Janja (see shop.ubrica.com) where members can buy and sell produce, products, and services. We have started enrolling individuals onto Soko Janja. Enrolled individuals can post pictures of their products, produce and services to the online retail store. Members of the CSU will use their wealth to finance health production for themselves and their loved ones. We will use Ubricoin to facilitate the management of the online store. Ubricoin will also be used at the point of sale in Soko Janja as well as an incentive structure to encourage people to buy from each other to activate local economy.

5.4.          SOKO JANJA 1 BILLION UBNS

We will sell 1 billion UBNs to support our online retail store Soko Janja (see shop.ubrica.com) to help operationalize wealth creation by each individual in any given community. We are proposing to build a platform that will be decentralized. The platform will facilitate peer-to-peer trading without Ubrica mediating. The trading will involve the use of Ubricoin as means of payment which will be validated by blockchain.

5.4.1.        The Reward System

We will create an incentive structure to facilitate peer-to-peer trading and purchase of locally produced products, produce and services. Holders of Ubricoin purchasing locally produced products and services in Soko Janja will receive the services and products at a discount. They will also receive loyalty point for shopping in Soko Janja.

5.4.2.       Reuse of points

Points received from shopping at Soko Janja will be used to access more products, produce and services in the Ubrica ecosystem such as shopping at Soko Janja or access to health services in the URCCs and BMICs

These 1 billion coins will be sold in four phases at $0.5 per UBN.

4.SMART REWARD (CRYPTOECONOMICS)

We have built, on blockchain technology, a model that will overcome shortage of financing for health, which has been the thorniest issue in global health.  Lack of funding for health in many countries of the world has led to increased burden of disease, years of life lost due to illness, very poor quality of life, and very low quality adjusted life years.

We strive to create a health conscious community that rewards people who provide valuable contribution to knowledge in lifescience and health. Through a smart reward system, we will see a rise in emergence of new knowledge and solutions to most vexing issues in health. Ubricoin will reach a broad market for health production that will include billions of people in developing countries who have been excluded from health care and from financial systems.

Ubricoin on blockchain for global health is extremely powerful as it will build financial incentives for traditionally marginalized hardworking people who contribute knowledge for the betterment of humanity. For the first time in history of mankind, hundreds of millions of people who contribute good deeds to improvement of health related quality of life of human race will receive incentives for their good deeds.

This smart reward system will unlock unprecedented amount of funds to support advancement in knowledge in general, and in lifescience and health production in the world, in particular. Good teachers who care deeply about their students, good researchers who contribute to new knowledge, and good practitioners who strive to provide greatest quality of service will receive financial incentives for their good deeds.

Our crypto-currency program involves creating incentive programs to reward excellence in education, research and practice. We shall also reward the use of Ubricoin for financial transactions in everyday practice. Buying from local suppliers and manufacturers on Soko Janja will attract rewards. By doing so, quality of medical and health care will improve all over the world.

It is widely documented that people living in developing countries do not have access to good quality education, products of research, and professional services. Much worse, developing countries are not at the forefront of biomedical research, development, innovation, and commercialization of research knowledge into commercial products and services.

The enterprise for translation of science into products for everyday domestic use and clinical care does not exist in developing countries, because there is no incentive for creating such enterprises. Absence of biomedical and health care innovation has resulted in a huge burden of disease in developing countries. Innovation in biomedical and health ecosystems rely on good financial incentives. The global financial community has not created financial incentives for biomedical innovation and health production.

Lo (2016), explained that when financial innovation is absent in a particular field of science, large scale innovation in that field is not possible. By contrast, with financial innovation any level of innovation is possible in any field of science. According to Lo, when financial innovation in a field is present, large scale innovation is possible in that field. Lo adds that financial innovation is a necessary and sufficient condition for any other innovation to occur. Furthermore, the global financial system has enough financial resources to solve all global health problems. This means that we have enough money in the world to support best quality health care for everyone. We however have lacked the technology to organize it.

To overcome this problem, Ubricoin will build financial incentives that will ensure continuous throughput of scientific innovation in service of health production in the developing world. To be successful, Ubricoin will have to reward all stages of knowledge production, beginning with primary school education. Education excellence reward system will offer tokens to primary school teachers, secondary school teachers, university educators, researchers and post university practitioners. Service quality smart reviews will provide community of users the power to incentivize quality and eliminate mediocrity in academia and industry. Ubricoin self-executing smart review contract will be the most powerful tool to improve service quality and establish loyal customer base.

4.1.1.Incentives for high quality knowledge in primary and secondary schools

For primary school and high school teachers, we will create a rating system on blockchain to reward excellence in practice. We will issue Brevis to teachers who demonstrate commitment and dedication to student learning. The students will use the system to rate their teachers and the rating points will convert to Brevises. The rating system will be embodied on teachers’ class attendance, quality of teaching and engaging students in practical work.

4.1.2.         Incentives for high quality knowledge in University

University lecturers/ professors will be rewarded for demonstrating quality knowledge transfer to their students. This will be done through the rating system where the students will rate their professors based on the knowledge gained and their satisfaction on the content delivered. Brevis will be issued based on a rating system, with those with good rating receiving the tokens.

We will also offer incentives for lecturers who will develop original proposal and peer reviewed papers. To encourage sharing of research work we will offer incentives to people who present their original research in conferences and commercialization their research. We will reward lecturers and professors who shows interest and commitment in reviewing of research papers and publishing and running journals on Ubrica Journal System.

4.1.3.         Incentives for professional practice

Professionals lacks incentives to do good in our society today. Using Ubricoin, we will issue tokens to individuals who demonstrate good professional practice, work ethics and good customer service. We will create a rating system where professionals will be rated by peers and consumers. This will act to improve quality in all sectors and eliminate inadequacy.

4.1.4.        Incentives for Shopping on Soko Janja

To promote village level commerce we will offer tokens to people who buy things made from local manufacturers. To facilitate local economy we will issue rewards for user registration into on Soko Janja platform. Consumers who will register and provide additional profile information will receive Brevis.  Purchasing and referring new users in Soko Janja will attract reward.

4.1.5.        Airdrops

We will offer Brevis to people who hold the Ubricoin on their wallets.  We will also issue brevis to people who will use our coin to do transactions.

3.2. HUMAN ENGAGEMENT

Briefly, our human engagement pillar involves engaging people at their basic level of existence to discover how we can work with them to create wealth. Members engaged will enter into a distributed autonomous organization (DAO) known as the Co-operative Society of Ubricans (CSU). We have created an online retail store known as Soko Janja (see, shop.ubrica.com) where members can buy and sell produce, products, and services.
3.3. PROJECTS
Ubrica project comprises three distinct scientific real estate projects: a series of world class health centers, university science and technology parks, and a biomedical industrial city in Kenya. These projects will be the rationale for issuing of the UBNs. We will sell the coins project-wise with each project taking four phases: private sale, presale, crowdsale and an initial coin offering.
3.3.1. Ubrica Retail Clinical Centers
We intend to construct at least 100 health centers that will be leased to qualifying health professionals on 20 year mortgage agreement.
3.3.2. University Science and Technology Parks
We will facilitate design, development and implementation of 66 Science and Technology Parks (STPs) for universities.
3.3.3. Biomedical Industrial City
We propose to implement Biomedical Industrial City in Kenya, known as Ubrica One. Ubrica one project is planned and designed to meet the full range of health needs, including curative and preventive services, of those residing and working in the Medical City as well as those visiting the Medical City for medical tourism and other purposes