How the Blockchain Works

How does the blockchain address this money transfer problem? For the blockchain to work, it relies on three major process: (a) open ledger, (b) distributed ledger, and (c) miners. Open Ledger

The blockchain is a public ledger. The chain of transactions done in blockchain are open for everyone to see. Everyone in the network can see where the money is, where it is going, and where it has come from. It shows how much money each of the actors has in his or her wallet, and everyone can decide whether a transaction is valid or whether it is not.  If a transaction is not valid it is not be added to the open ledger. It is rejected and does not become part of the chain. Distributed Ledger

Blockchain’s goal is to get rid of centralized ledger. Blockchain takes the centralized ledger and distributes it across all actors .We call all these actors, nodes; each person in the network is running the software application on his or her computer or mobile device. In this way, actor A’s application downloads and continually updates a copy of the ledger, so does actor B, and so does actor C, and so does actor D. Each of the four has the same copy of the ledger updated continuously. Anyone else who joins the network will have the same copy of the ledger. The ledger is distributed across a network of nodes.

To avoid problems, all the copies of the ledger in the network must remain synchronized. All participants in the network must see the same copy.  This leads to the third principle of the blockchain: miners. Miners

Now we have an open ledger that everyone can see. The ledger is distributed across multiple nodes. The question becomes, how in a distributed ledger nodes understand and synchronize the ledger among themselves.

Miners are special nodes which can hold the ledger. The miners compete among themselves to validate transactions and put them on the ledger. The first miner who will validate the transaction will get a financial reward, a Bitcoin let’s say.

In order to be the first to take the transaction and put it on the ledger, a miner needs to do two things:

  • Validate the new transaction. This is easy, the ledger is open and anyone can immediately calculate whether the sender has the funds in order to make the transfer.
  • Find a special key that will enable to take the present transaction, add to the previous transaction, and lock it. In order to find this key, the miner needs to invest computational power and time because the search for the key is random. The miner is repeatedly guessing new key, until it finds the key that matches the random puzzle. The first miner to do that will get financial reward. This economic incentive essentially ensures that collectively they agree on what is the official ledger that should be used by everyone.

Synchronizing the ledger across the network a miner will be able to solve the transaction and add it to the ledger. The miner will then broadcast that information to the entire network. He will say, “here is a validated transaction and here is the key that enables everyone on the network to take it and add it to their own ledger.”

What are the other minors going to do? They will see that the transaction is already validated and added to the ledger, which means there is no point in trying to solve this transaction again. The other miners will immediately take this transaction, add it to their own ledger and will look for another transaction to work on, and hopefully to get a reward next time.

UBRICOIN Blockchain Technology for Global Health Ensuring Universal Health Access for You and Your Loved Ones


We have developed Ubricoin on blockchain to serve as a platform devoted to improving quality of health for all. Ubricoin will help to achieve global health. We will use Ubricoin to develop global health industry and create market intelligence through a cryptocurrency reward system that will inspire positive contribution to health improvement around the world. We will use a smart review system to reward consumers for positive health behavior. Educators at all levels of education, researchers, and practitioners at all levels, will receive rewards for excellence, quality of work, and positive contribution to society.

We believe in a future where everybody has access to best health products and services. We believe in great health that is easily accessible and affordable to all. We believe in a future of universal health access. We expect that Ubricoin will improve health related quality of life (QOL) and quality adjusted life years (QALY). In addition, we believe that Ubricoin will reduce the enormous burden of disease (BoD), particularly in the developing world, and eliminate years of life lost (YLL) due to disease.

1.1. Blockchain
Block chain is a technology that enables movement of digital assets such as Ubricoin (Waruing, 2018).  One of the problems that blockchain will solve is that of money transfer. Today, if a person A in United States wants to send money to person B in Kenya, he/she has to go to a trusted third party, say a bank. Person A in United States will deposit the money with the trusted third party, who in turn will identify and validate person B in Kenya. The trusted third party will then move the money to person B, after taking a fee. The process may take three or more days, sometimes a week.

Blockchain enables transfer of money without trusted third party, without delay and without fees. Blockchain enables people to move money directly to one another. Nakamoto (2008) referred to this method as peer-to-peer.

In a nutshell, blockchain moves money faster than three days. Indeed, it moves money immediately. Moving money on blockchain is cheaper; there is no third party collecting fees.

UBRICOIN Blockchain Technology for Global Health Ensuring Universal Health Access for You and Your Loved Ones


The purpose of this whitepaper is to present a summary of Ubricoin as a utility token for global health and for building incentives for excellence in education and health production. The information set forth below may be changed for any reason, may not be exhaustive and does not imply any elements of a contractual relationship. Although Ubricoin holders have a claim to the coin and access to the Ubrica ecosystem they are not entitled to any dividends or other revenue. The sale and purchase of UBN coin is governed by the Terms of Sale available on Ubricoin website ( The price of the coin will largely be controlled by the action of the coin holders. The owners of Ubricoin are granted an opportunity to contribute to the larger systems facilitating excellence in education and production of health. This whitepaper’s sole purpose is to provide relevant and reasonable information to you in order for you to determine whether to take part in Ubrica Project by acquiring Ubricoin.


This is the second version of the white paper. This version contains material revisions of previous version dated June 1, 2018. The revisions are occasioned by deeper understanding of use of blockchain in global health space, and the implication of token economy in a global health ecosystem. This second version contains indepth explanation of the token economy created by Ubricoin. The version contains an explanation about how Ubricoin will work as a utility token.


A disease in simpler terms is an illness or sickness. Diseases in Africa can be prevented by simple measures, starting with proper education. This is by educating people on ways and how they can stay healthy as well as on personal hygiene. Personal hygiene is about keeping mind and body healthy always and so have a healthy society.

Most diseases affect our women and children which form the most vulnerable class. Diseases like diarrhea, one of the deadliest diseases in Africa, claims many lives and is very common among the poorest people in our society. Diarrhea is the result of contaminated water, inadequate hygiene, poor sanitation, malnutrition. According to the World Health Organization [WHO], 2018) approximately 525,000 children under the age of five die each year from the disease.

We therefore see poor diet and inability to absorb proper nutrients as a contributing factor. Ubrica an organization located in Nairobi decided to help the community by taking a step.

 Ubrica, a life-science and health production organization has come up with ways to solve problems facing Africa, starting with Kenya. Ubrica is investing in life science which comprises of manufacture of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, health care clinics and hospitals in Africa.

Ubrica Reality of Dreams

Ubrica has created an online retail store market known as Soko Janja. We have observed how the local farmers and manufactures have been struggling to sell their produce faster to the market unsuccessfully. Lack of market has largely contributed to poverty in the Society and lack of proper medical attention. Soko Janja market has been created to sell produce from farmers and local manufacturers to the local and International market. Manufactures and farmers are now able to sell their products through our online market which has generated wealth to the people’s pockets and are now able to access good health care services and live healthy lives.

Malnutrition due to poverty, can now be eradicated easily once the society is able to afford to feed itself properly.

Ubrica wants the Mwananchi (ordinary people) to easily access retail stores and take their produce next to a processing factory within the same locality, while accessing a clinic center. This brings us to our next project pioneered by Ubrica.

UBRICA Meets the Community

Ubrica is venturing into Kenyan market with retail clinical centers distributed all over the country. This is a community project we call Ubrica Retail Clinical Centres (URCC). A URCC comprise a retail store, a clinic and a processing factory in one particular area.

Here we can see a farmer who produces mangoes at his farm, is able to display his mangoes in the retail store which will attract shoppers who will become clients in the clinic centres. The farmer is also able to take his produce to the factory for processing and packaging which shall be sold in the local or international market. All these within reachable location. This increase in industrialization will bring better sanitation while generating wealth for the community and so improve the living standards eradicating diseases which are caused by improper sanitation. Whenever people are able to produce, sell and receive money for their produce, this brings up a society that is emotionally and physically stable.

Ubrica health, not only does it want to improve lives of the local people but also focuses on how it can improve or better our health centres. It is of great significance to receive quality health care. Since the people are now wealthy and can afford the medical attention they need, it is paramount they receive the best care possible.

Ubrica Journal System

Ubrica Journal System was created with express purpose to educate the society on many facets of life. The journal system will host specific series on how to stay healthy and continue staying healthy. We are reaching out to all medical professionals in the country to write about their experiences in the hospitals, clinic or area of work at the hospitals. Doctors share their experiences with you through  the journals. The Journals will play a major role in our society, for the topics will vary from grand rounds, clinical-pathology meetings, case reports, anecdotes, original research works and monographs.

Since 2014, Ubrica has wanted a better Africa in life science and health care, let us now improve lives and lift the life of another (Michael Karuu, Ubrica-Vice President).

Ubrica cares for Africa for Kenya.



Jane Mbithe Jeremiah


Hundreds of doctors in Kenya have expressed interest in special seminar on blockchain in medicine. We believe it is critical to address this matter in support of Kenya Medical Association to respond to the needs of its members.

We have  created a September Seminar on Blockchain in Health and Medicine.

The Seminar on blockchain is intercalated in a wider event jointly created with Crown Women Rising (see details here)

Come, listen, gain hands-on experience in a breaking field of computer science. Learn what is blockchain, and how it intersects with the field of medicine.

Date: Thursday, September 6, 2018

Detailed Program, Nairobi Safari Club


Time – Activity, Person Responsible

9.00 AM – What is blockchain, Wahito Wachira

9:15 AM – The Open Ledger, King Solomon

9:30 AM – Decentralized Ledger, Richard Gitau

9:45 AM – Mining, Kelvin Kamiti

10:00 AM – Consensus Algorithms, Purity Muthua


11:00 AM – Blockchain in Medicine and Health, Susan Nyambura Njuguna

11:15 AM – Longitudinal Medical Record (Medical Information System), Maxwell Barasa

11:30 AM – Clinical Decision Support/Artificial Intelligence, Cynthia Ngaruiya

11:45 AM – Genetic Information Systems, Peter Kabi

12:00 PM – Payment systems, Triza Kang’ethe

12:15 PM – Community Health Decision Support/Artificial Intelligence, Richard Gitau

12:30 PM – LUNCH

2:00 PM – What is Ubricoin, Susan Nyambura Njuguna

2:15 PM – Why Ubricoin, Jordan Muthemba

2:30 PM – Consensus Algorithm in Ubricoin, Samuel Wanyoike

2:45 PM – How to Participate, Michael Karuu


3:00 PM – Q&A and Enrollment, Precious Comfort



Follow the link below to register

Thank you, look forward to this exciting Seminar.


Macharia Waruingi, MD DHA
Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Health Administration
President and Chairman of the Board
Ustawi Biomedical Research Innovation and Industrial Centers of Africa [UBRICA]
Convener: Membership Committee, Nairobi Division, Kenya Medical Association [KMA]
Convener: Media Outreach Committee, Nairobi Division, Kenya Medical Association [KMA]
Convener: Medical Camps Committee, Nairobi Division, Kenya Medical Association [KMA]